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Dysgraphia is a clinical term used to describe difficulty with the writing process. Typically students that struggle with dysgraphia struggle with the fine motor process of holding a pen or pencil, the ability to copy words from the board to their paper in an intelligible format, letter formation and handwriting, and the ability to get their thoughts from their brain to the paper.
There are several processes involved in writing ranging from the ability to hold the pencil to the ability to adequately organize thoughts in a sequential and meaningful format. Typically students with dysgraphia struggle in several of these areas. Not all students that struggle with handwriting have dysgraphia nor do all students that struggle with conceptualizing paragraph level writing have dysgraphia. Rather dysgraphia describes a pattern of performance across all writing domains than would typically be expected for the child's developmental level.
Dysgraphia is treated with a structured approach to fine motor control, handwriting instruction (often a switch to cursive is suggested if the child is over 8 years of age), systematic spelling instruction, and explicit paragraph/essay organization strategies. These students struggle with all of the demands of the writing process and making these routines more automatic allows them to use less of their cognitive capacity (i.e., brain space) on each task thereby allowing them to focus more on the content of their writing.
There are a number of difficulties that can be consumed under the umbrella of "dysgraphia" ranging from extreme difficulty with handwriting and the motor processes of writing to the difficulty with producing or coming up with a topic and details to write about.