Discovering a Learning Disability
First things first, thank you for supporitng a child with a potential learning disability. We know that you are a great resource to him/her because you are here. You are doing your research and you are showing up. So, thank you.
The best place to begin when you are looking into a potential learning disability is to identify indicators of a potential learning problem.
Think about it this way, if you have a student with an average (or above average) IQ, has the ability to hear words or see them on paper, and has been in school and recieving instruction, but is not performing to a level that indicates all of that, it is time for an evaluation.
Let’s be a bit more specific.
This is when a student’s IQ is not matching their reading or spelling scores.
For example, if a student has an IQ standard score of 120 but their reading and spelling achievement standard scores are reported as 80 and 76 respectively, they are demonstrating at least a 40 point discrepancy between their overall cognition and their academic achievement. (Generally, a 15 point difference is reported to be statistically significant.)
Descrepancies in daily interactions
Another way this discrepancy might come to your attention (without having standardized assessment scores) is in daily interactions with a child. A child might demonstrate strong verbal skills and strong problem-solving skills, but their reading/writing/spelling work does not seem to match.
An evaluation is important, not only to identify the underlying deficit, but to also identify an appropriate instructional approach, goals for remediation, and the potential need for further assessment by a specialist.
School systems have moved away from using the "discrepancy model" in order to identify learning disabilities, but the fact is, if you have an intelligent student and their work output does not match their intelligence (meaning they are significantly under-performing), then there is most likely a learning deficit. The good news is, remediation is generally successful with students who possess average intelligence levels.
There are other indicators and behaviors to look for that may not be obvious. These behaviors will most likely appear in the classroom and at home. It is important to note that all children exhibit one or more of these behaviors from time to time. IF a child is consistently demonstrating a group of these behaviors it may be time to seek out an evaluation by a qualified individual. If you are curious if the school or a private evaluation is a better fit - click here.
Difficulty with Attention and Concentration
Trouble completing tasks
Difficulty with Memory
Learning the alphabet
Difficulty with Spoken or Written Language
Learning new vocabulary
Discriminating among sounds (hearing the difference between /m/ and /n/ for example)
Reversing or omitting letters, words or phrases (very common with smaller words or word parts, such as suffixes, while reading)
Writing stories and essays
Difficulty with Organization
Sequencing information (letters in the alphabet, days of the week, months of the year, numbers)
Thinking (relating a specific detail or idea to a unifying concept)
Difficulty with Physical Coordination
Manipulating small objects
Difficulty with Appropriate Social Behavior
Tolerating frustration (outbursts)
Interpreting nonverbal skills (body language)
Accepting changes in routine
To reiterate a point made above, dyslexia is in no way correlated with a person’s intelligence. If you read through all of the signs listed above, have a specific student in mind, and are saying to yourself “Oh, but he’s so smart. He can’t be dyslexic!” you need to read this.